General surgery

General surgery

Introduction

The alimentary canal and abdominal contents, such as the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix, bile ducts, and frequently the thyroid gland, are the focus of general surgery, a surgical specialty. In addition, they handle disorders of the skin, breast, soft tissues, injuries, peripheral artery disease, hernias, and execute endoscopic operations such colonoscopies, gastroscopies, and laparoscopies.
“General Surgery” is a branch of surgery that includes all surgical specialties’ shared knowledge bases in anatomy, physiology, metabolism, immunology, nutrition, pathology, wound healing, shock and resuscitation, critical care, and neoplasia.

General surgery

GENERAL SURGERY: WHAT IS IT?

General surgery is still regarded as a distinct medical specialty even though it treats common conditions. Anatomy, physiology, metabolism, immunology, nutrition, pathology, wound healing, and other topics shared by all surgical specialties are among the fundamentals of general surgery. To put it simply, general surgeons treat illnesses pertaining to the digestive system, blood vessels, abdominal cavity, breast, head, and neck, as well as injuries, malformations, and other ailments.

General Surgery

Of all the surgeon specialties, general surgery covers the widest range of surgical disorders that can affect practically every part of the body. A general surgeon diagnoses patients and treats them preoperatively, during surgery, and after surgery. Critically sick patients and trauma victims frequently receive extensive care from general surgeons. Surgeons need to be proficient in almost every kind of surgery and equipped to deal with a wide range of crises and unforeseen situations in the operating room. After graduating from medical school, surgeons spend five years in a general surgery residency. They are eligible to seek for membership in the American College of Surgeons and hold certification from the American Board of Surgery.

Surgery of the Heart and Thoracic

Procedures for the heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs in the chest are included under cardiothoracic surgery. This specialty includes general thoracic surgeons, congenital heart surgeons, cardiovascular surgeons, and cardiac surgeons. Cardiothoracic surgeons can address anomalies of the heart valves and great vessels in addition to doing transplant surgery. In addition, they handle congenital abnormalities, coronary artery disease, disorders of the diaphragm, heart disease, angina pectoris (heart discomfort), lung, esophageal, and chest wall cancers, airway blockages, and mediastinum tumors. Cardiothoracic surgeons are proficient in endoscopy, extracorporeal circulation, cardiac assist device use, cardiac dysrhythmia care, pleural drainage, and respiratory oncology. They also possess a strong foundation in cardiorespiratory physiology and oncology.

General surgery

Rectal and Colon Surgery

Surgery involving the anal canal, colon, intestinal system, perianal region, and rectum is referred to as colon and rectal surgery. Surgeons specializing in colon and rectal surgery also handle tissues and organs affected by primary intestinal disease, including the liver, kidneys, and female reproductive systems. Anorectal disorders such as abscesses, constipation, fissures, fistulae, hemorrhoids, and incontinence need to be diagnosed and treated by a colon and rectal surgeon. In addition to treating intestinal and colon issues, colon and rectal surgeons also carry out endoscopic operations to identify and manage gut lining disorders like cancer, inflammation, and precancerous polyps. Additionally, small bowel, colon, and rectum abdominal surgical operations are performed by colon and rectal surgeons. These treatments include the management of inflammatory bowel illnesses like chronic ulcerative colitis.

General surgery

Pregnancy and Gynecology

Together, gynecology and obstetrics provide care for expectant mothers, assist with childbirth, and treat disorders pertaining to the female reproductive system. Obstetricians and gynecologists, or OB/GYN surgeons, can conduct hysterectomies, in vitro fertilization, reconstructive surgery, urogynecological surgery, caesarean sections, and other high-risk deliveries. Experts in every facet of women’s reproductive physiology, OB/GYN surgeons are. Four years of medical school and four years of obstetrics and gynecological residency are required of gynecological and obstetrical surgeons. Subspecialties within OB/GYN demand an extra two to four years of education. The American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology certifies OB/GYNs, and they are eligible to apply for membership in the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Obstetrical Oncology

The exclusive focus of gynecological oncology is on cancers of the female reproductive system. These tumors include rare fallopian tube cancer as well as cancers of the cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar regions. Surgeons who specialize in this field need to be aware of the many causes, preventions, detection strategies, and survival rates of these cancers in addition to the surgical therapies available for them. Gynecologic oncology surgeons undergo two to three years of specialized training in addition to four years of medical school, four years of obstetrics and gynecological residency, and so on. They can seek for membership in the Society of Surgical Oncology and the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists after earning their certification from the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

General surgery

Neurosurgical Procedures

Disorders of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems—as well as the vascular supply and supporting structures of these systems—are treated by neurological surgery. In addition to performing treatments including endovascular surgery, functional and restorative surgery, spinal fusion, and stereotactic radiosurgery, neurological surgeons also offer nonoperative care such as critical care, diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and rehabilitation. Disorders affecting the brain, meninges, skull, extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries are treated by neurosurgeons. In addition, diseases of the pituitary gland, spinal cord, vertebral column, and cranial and spinal nerves are treated by neurosurgeons. Four years of medical school and seven years of neurological surgery residency are required of neurological surgeons. Subspecialties need a year or two more of training.Neurosurgeons can apply to become members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and are certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgeons.

General surgery

Surgery of the Eyes

Ophthalmic surgery is used to address conditions affecting the eyes. To treat vision issues, ophthalmologists may perform laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) procedures in addition to providing corrective vision services (contacts or glasses). In addition, they might perform surgery to cure conditions like glaucoma, macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, or strabismus (cross-eyed). Four years of medical school and four years of ophthalmology residency are completed by ophthalmic surgeons. A year or two more of training is needed for subspecialties such vitreoretinal disease, ocular oncology, neuro-ophthalmology, and cornea and external disease. Ophthalmologists can apply to become members of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and are certified by the American Board of Ophthalmology.

General surgery

Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery

The hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, as well as abnormalities, illnesses, and trauma to the face, head, jaws, and neck, are all treated by oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons can perform dental implant surgery, extract wisdom teeth, remove tumors or cysts, and realign misaligned jaws. In an office environment, these professionals may also provide patient care and anesthesia. Since oral and maxillofacial surgery is a dental specialty, professionals in the field must first finish four years of dentistry school and four to six years of residency training (the six-year period requires obtaining a medical degree). Additional training is necessary for subspecialties in head and neck cancer, craniofacial and pediatric maxillofacial surgery, cranio-maxillofacial trauma, and cosmetic facial surgery.

General surgery

Surgery of the Orthopedics

The treatment of the body’s musculoskeletal system—which includes the bones, joints, muscles, related arteries, nerves, and skin—is the focus of orthopedic surgery, sometimes known as orthopaedic surgery. Bone fractures, tendons and ligament injuries, and abnormalities of the spine and limbs are among the conditions that orthopedic surgeons address. An orthopedist may treat patients with splints, physical therapy, braces, or casts. Treatment for congenital abnormalities, degenerative disorders, infections, metabolic problems, injuries, and malignancies may need orthopedic surgery. Cerebral palsy, paraplegia, and stroke surgery are among the surgical conditions in which an orthopedic surgeon may practice. The musculoskeletal system is vast, hence orthopedic surgery encompasses a number of subspecialties:
Hand surgery
Sports medicine
Pediatric orthopedics
Spine surgery
Foot and ankle orthopedics
Joint replacement
Trauma surgery
Oncology

General surgery

Four years of medical school and five years of orthopedic surgery residency are required of orthopedists. An additional year or two of training is needed for subspecialties. The American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery certifies orthopedic doctors, and they are eligible to apply for membership in the American Association of Orthopaedic doctors.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Diseases and disorders of the head and neck, including the ears, nose, throat, and associated structures, are treated by otolaryngological surgery. Experts in audiology, the chemical senses, speech-language pathology, allergies, endocrinology, and neurology as they pertain to the head and neck are otolaryngologists, sometimes known as ENT (ear, nose, and throat) surgeons. ENT physicians also perform reconstructive and plastic surgery on the face, as well as head and neck cancer. Otolaryngologists can detect and treat sinus and laryngeal diseases with endoscopy, as well as microvascular repair or neurotologic operations. After completing five years of otolaryngology residency and four years of medical school, otolaryngologist surgeons become doctors. They are eligible to apply for membership in the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and hold certification from the American Board of Otolaryngology.

General surgery

Children’s Surgery

From babies to teenagers, pediatric surgery treats a wide range of illnesses and problems in children. To enhance quality of life, certain medical problems in neonates need to be surgically rectified. Pediatricians, family doctors, and neonatologists need to be aware of these conditions. Together with these professionals, pediatric surgeons decide if surgery is the best course of action. Afterwards, pediatric surgeons have to think about how anesthesia and surgery affect kids’ growth and development. Pediatric surgery treats any disorders that affect children and call for surgery. It is a broad field of practice. Trauma, pediatric oncology, and prenatal or neonatal issues are a few examples of these conditions. Four years of medical school, five years of general surgery residency, and two years of specialized training are all required of pediatric surgeons. They can seek for membership in the American Pediatric Surgical Association and the American Pediatric Association-Surgery Section. They hold certification from the American Board of Surgery.

General surgery

Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery

Repair, replacement, and reconstruction of problems pertaining to the shape and function of the body covering and its underlying musculoskeletal system are the areas of focus for plastic and maxillofacial surgery. In addition to aesthetic surgery of structures with undesired form, this type of surgery focuses on the oropharynx, the breast, the external genitalia, the upper and lower limbs, and the craniofacial structures. In order to undertake plastic surgery, these surgeons need to develop specialized knowledge and skills in the creation and transfer of skin flaps, tissue transplantation, and structural replantation. It also calls for proficiency with allopathic materials, sophisticated wound treatment, and excisional surgery. Plastic surgeons are specialists in professional associations such as the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

Surgical urology

Adrenal and genitourinary system problems are treated with urological surgery. Urologists treat congenital and acquired disorders of the reproductive and urinary systems, as well as the adjacent structures, with endoscopic, percutaneous, and open surgery. Their specialization includes female urology, pediatric urology, andrology, endourology, cancer, and general urology. They may treat blockages, inflammatory disorders, malignancies, or dysfunction. After completing four years of medical school and five or six years of urological surgery residency, urologists become surgeons. They are eligible to apply for membership in the American Urological Association and hold certification from the American Board of Urology.

General surgery

Surgical Procedures for Vascular

All areas of the body, with the exception of the brain and heart, are treated by vascular surgery for illnesses and abnormalities of the arteries and veins. In addition to treating peripheral vascular disease in the legs and feet, aneurysms and blood clots in the arteries and veins, and strokes brought on by blockages or constriction of the neck arteries, vascular surgeons typically treat atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Vascular surgeons treat many patients outside of the operating room by suggesting dietary adjustments, medications, or physical activity. Vascular surgeons are highly proficient in post-operative care and the early detection of possible stroke victims. Four years of medical school, five years of general surgery residency, and two years of vascular training are required of vascular surgeons. The Americans Board of Vascular Medicine, and they may apply for membership in the Society for Vascular Surgery.

REFERENCES

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