Symptoms of COVID-19

Symptoms of COVID-19

Introduction

Depending on the type of variation ingested, COVID-19 symptoms can vary, ranging from minor complaints to a potentially fatal illness.(Source: ) Less common symptoms include headaches, nasal congestion and runny nose, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, eye irritation, and toes swelling or turning purple. In moderate to severe cases, breathing difficulties are also present. Common symptoms include coughing, fever, loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (agues). Individuals infected with COVID-19 may experience a variety of symptoms, some of which may be transient. There are three common symptom clusters that have been identified: a respiratory cluster that includes cough, sputum, fever, and shortness of breath; a musculoskeletal cluster that includes headache, fatigue, and muscle and joint pain; and a cluster of digestive symptoms that includes vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

Symptoms of COVID-19

81% of those who exhibit symptoms only experience mild to moderate symptoms, such as mild pneumonia; 14% experience severe symptoms that necessitate hospitalization, such as dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging; and 5% of patients experience critical symptoms, such as respiratory failure, septic shock, or multiorgan dysfunction, necessitating ICU admission.In [Requires update] When exposed to the virus, at least one-third of infected individuals never show any symptoms at all. Even though they don’t show any symptoms, these carriers can still spread the illness. Other infected individuals may have very mild symptoms or show symptoms later (referred to as “pre-symptomatic”), and they can still spread the virus.
There is a lag between the time an individual contracts an infection and the onset of symptoms, as is typical with infections. With a four to five day median delay, COVID-19 may be contagious on four or five of those days. Nearly everyone who is symptomatic will have at least one symptom within 12 days of exposure, with the majority experiencing symptoms two to seven days after exposure.

The majority of patients recover during the illness’s acute stage. But even after they recover, some people endure a variety of side effects for months at a time, like fatigue. This is the outcome of a medical condition known as long COVID, which is characterized by a variety of enduring symptoms that last for several weeks or months at a time. There have also been reports of long-term organ damage following the onset of COVID-19. Studies spanning several years are being conducted to learn more about the disease’s possible long-term effects.
In the United States, the Omicron variant took over in December 2021. Compared to other variants, the Omicron variant has milder symptoms.

The  Facts

The infectious disease COVID-19 first gained international notice in December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic in March 2020 as a result of the virus’s increasing global spread of infection cases. COVID-19 is still spreading and has impacted nations all over the world to date.

Reasons

Officially known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), this virus is the source of COVID-19. It is a member of the wider coronavirus family of viruses. While coronaviruses can infect humans and animals alike, respiratory infections are only known to be caused by human coronaviruses.
The COVID-19 virus has numerous genetic variations known as variants. Variants can impact how quickly the virus spreads, how serious an infection is, and how protected you are from subsequent infections, vaccinations, or medical interventions. In Canada, Omicron (B.1.1.529) and its related subvariants are the primary variant of concern.
COVID-19 can transmit directly between individuals via respiratory droplets. Aerosols—small enough to float in the air—produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes can also expose you to the virus. These aerosols stay in the atmosphere for a very long time. Additionally, touching infected surfaces and then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes could expose you to the virus.

The following people are most at risk of exposure:

People who frequently come into contact with unvaccinated individuals
Those who provide care for people who may or may not have COVID-19
Those who labor in settings where a large number of people are present
People who are employed in collective environments, like prisons, assisted living facilities, shelters, or group homes
People who have obstacles in their lives—social, financial, or otherwise—that prevent them from carrying out public health initiatives.

Symptoms of COVID-19

Indications and Adverse Events

The symptoms of a COVID-19 infection can range from little to nonexistent to serious illness and death. The majority of infections start up to 14 days after exposure and are typically mild.

Symptoms of COVID-19

Typical symptoms consist of:

New or worsening cough
Fever
Tiredness
Chills
Muscle aches
Headache
Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea

Other symptoms include:

Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
Sore throat
Painful or difficulty swallowing
Red eyes (conjunctivitis)
Decreased appetite
Loss of smell or taste

This is not an exhaustive list. Remember that COVID-19 symptoms can differ amongst individuals, among age groups, and based on the COVID-19 variant. If you experience any other symptoms that are severe or worrisome, please contact your physician.
On the other hand, some patients might experience other, more serious side effects like pneumonia or respiratory failure. Certain populations are more susceptible to severe illness from COVID-19: those who have not received all recommended vaccinations, women who are pregnant, adults 60 years of age and older (risk increases with age), those who have underlying chronic medical conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, or lung disease), those who are obese and have a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher, and those with compromised immune systems.
A COVID-19 infection may occasionally result in chronic symptoms that continue for weeks or months following the patient’s initial recovery. This is referred to as long COVID or post COVID-19 condition. Regardless of the severity of your infection or whether you experienced symptoms while infected, you can develop post-COVID-19 condition.

Depending on an individual’s age, the effects of the post-COVID-19 condition might vary. Twelve weeks after infection, 30 to 40 percent of adults who were not admitted to the hospital due to COVID-19 symptoms are still thought to be symptomatic. Symptoms that adults typically experience include:

Tiredness
Memory problems
Difficulty sleeping
Shortness of breath
Anxiety and depression
General pain and discomfort
Difficulty thinking or concentrating
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Symptoms that commonly affect children include:

Tiredness
Shortness of breath
Headaches
Muscle aches and pains
Joint pains
Difficulty sleeping
Stuffy or runny nose
Difficulty thinking or concentrating

Your mental health may also be impacted by a post-COVID-19 condition. Consult your healthcare provider if you experience any changes in your mental health after contracting COVID-19, such as anxiety, depression, or PTSD symptoms.

Identifying the Illness

As advised by your local public health authority, you should self-isolate if you believe you are exhibiting signs of a COVID-19 infection. Numerous testing techniques, such as molecular testing, rapid-antigen testing, and traditional laboratory-based testing, can identify coronavirus infections. Saliva samples, nasal, throat, and oral fluid swabs can all be used for testing.

Symptoms of COVID-19

Intervention and Avoidance

With mild illnesses, most people recover without medical intervention. However, in order to help with comfort and reduce COVID-19 symptoms, your healthcare provider might suggest a few different medications.
Numerous drugs to treat COVID-19 are being researched and developed right now. Remdesivir and bamlanivimab are two of the COVID-19 treatments that Health Canada has approved. Certain medications, like ritonavir and nirmatrelvir, can be taken orally at home. Provinces and territories may have different COVID-19 treatment availability and eligibility requirements.
The Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty® COVID-19 vaccine and the Moderna Spikevax® COVID-19 vaccine are two of the COVID-19 vaccines that are currently approved for use in Canada. Health Canada is still keeping a careful eye on the vaccines that have been approved, and additional vaccines are presently being reviewed.
Getting fully vaccinated against COVID-19 is advised in order to reduce your risk of contracting the virus and other consequences that may arise from a severe infection, such as hospitalization. To improve protection and stop the virus from spreading, your local public health authority might advise receiving booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. Certain booster shots may protect your body from several COVID-19 strains, assisting in the development of stronger immunity.

One of the most crucial things you can do to prevent getting COVID-19 is to practice good hand hygiene because the virus can spread from person to person. Whenever feasible, wear a face mask, especially when you’re in a public place. Keep your hands away from your mouth, nose, and eyes. By avoiding sick people, you should try to reduce the likelihood that you will come into contact with the virus. When coughing and sneezing when you’re sick, cover your mouth and nose.

REFERENCES

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