Technology Transfer

The process of transferring (disseminating) technology from the person or organization that owns or holds it to another person or organization is known as technology transfer (TT), also known as transfer of technology (TOT). It aims to turn inventions and scientific discoveries into new goods and services that benefit society.Technology transfer is closely connected to knowledge transfer and might perhaps be viewed as a part of it.
Today, a complete definition of technology transfer incorporates the idea of collaboration, since it became obvious that finding global solutions was the only way to address the world’s problems. Connecting stakeholders in innovation and transferring ideas from creators to consumers in the public and commercial sectors depend heavily on knowledge and technology transfer.
Intellectual property (IP) is a crucial tool for transferring technologies because it creates a setting whereby discoveries and innovations may be shared.A 2003 analysis revealed that each organization’s context, or environment, and goals will affect the technology transfer strategy used. Even more so when business and governmental interests are merged, the motivations underlying the technology transfer were not always consistent across organizational levels.Universities and research institutions can assure ownership of the scientific results of their creative activity and govern the use of IP in accordance with their fundamental missions and values thanks to the protection of IP rights. Intellectual property protection allows academic institutions to commercialize their creations, gain financing, find industry partners, and ensure the spread of innovative ideas.

Technology Transfer

Practiced technology transfer

Technology transfers can take place formally and informally, publicly and covertly, between institutions, corporations (of any size, from tiny to giant), governments, and across geopolitical borders. Sharing of expertise, knowledge, technologies, manufacturing techniques, samples, and resources among the participants frequently happens as a result of a determined effort.
Although there are several activities that make up the technology transfer process and there are numerous methods to depict them, in practice technology transfer is a fluid and dynamic process that seldom takes a straight path.Typical actions consist of:
Creation of new knowledge Disclosure
Evaluation and evaluation
IPR defense
Development of technology and fundraising
The commercialization of marketing
Impact and product development.
The goal of technology transfer is to make new scientific and technical advancements available to a larger audience of consumers so they may further develop and utilize the technology to create new goods, methods, uses, things, or services. It is closely connected to knowledge transmission and might be viewed as a subset of that concept. Technology transfer from one domain to another is known as horizontal transfer.
Technology transfer is often horizontal. When technology are transferred vertically from applied research centers to research and development departments, this is known as vertical transfer.

Spin-outs

When the host organization lacks the motivation, funding, or expertise to develop new technologies, spin-outs are deployed. These strategies frequently involve acquiring venture capital (VC) to pay for the development process, which is a prevalent practice in the US and the EU. In Canada, where the rate of licensing of university research is still far lower than in the US, research spin-off businesses are a common vehicle for commercialization. Conferences where investors evaluate the prospects for the commercialization of technology are also sponsored by regional venture capital groups, such as the Mid-Atlantic Venture Association (MAVA).
Technology brokers are those who have figured out how to link the worlds as they are emerging and adapt scientific ideas or methods to novel settings. The phrase “technology valorisation” is similar and is virtually always used interchangeably, particularly in Europe. Though the concept has been used for a long time (Archimedes was renowned for applying science to real-world issues in antiquity), the current volume of research and high-profile failures at Xerox PARC and elsewhere[citation needed] have caused a focus on the process itself.
Technology transfer can involve the distribution of highly complex technology from capital-intensive sources to recipients with low capital (and can involve aspects of dependency and fragility of systems), but it can also involve appropriate technology that is better distributed and isn’t necessarily high-tech or expensive, leading to robustness and independence of systems.

impromptu promotion

The promotion of technology transfer also occurs informally, such as at conferences held by various organizations, such as the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation and the Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM), and at “challenge” competitions hosted by groups like the Center for Advancing Innovation in Maryland. More than 800 universities, research institutions, hospitals, companies, and governmental agencies are represented by AUTM, which represents over 3,100 technology transfer experts.
The informal methods of transferring technology that are most commonly employed include education, research, professional opinion-exchange, human mobility, seminars, and workshops.
To support this “informal” exchange of best practices and experiences, multiple professional groups and TTO Networks are fostering various types of engagement between technology managers.
The Association of European Science and Technology Transfer Professionals (ASTP), the Alliance of Technology Transfer Professionals (ATTP), the Licensing Executives Society (LES), Praxis Auril, and others are regional and worldwide organizations in addition to AUTM. The National Association of Technology Transfer Offices in Mexico (Red OTT Mexico), the Brazilian Forum of Innovation and Technology Transfer Managers (FORTEC), the Alliance of TechTransfer Professionals of the Philippines (AToP), the South African Research and Innovation Management Association (SARIMA), and other organizations are examples of national technology transfer associations and networks.
Since international technology transfer is now regarded as one of the most successful methods of bringing people together to find solutions to major problems like COVID-19, climate change, or cyber-attacks, they encourage cooperation in technology transfer as well as the sharing of best practices and experiences among professionals.

IP guidelines

IP guidelines

Universities and research institutes might implement an institutional intellectual property strategy for efficient management of intellectual property and technology transfer if they want to collaborate with business or other groups. Such regulations offer structure, predictability, and an environment in which commercialization partners (industrial sponsors, consultants, non-profit organizations, SMEs, governments), as well as research stakeholders (researchers, technicians, students, visiting researchers, etc.), can gain access to and share knowledge, technology, and intellectual property (IP). National IP strategies are actions a government takes to achieve its IP policy goals.

Organizations that transfer technology

Even though a study finding may be of both scientific and economic importance, someone—not necessarily the researchers—must develop a specific practical procedure in order to receive a patent. Commercial value is another factor to take into account. For instance, while there are various techniques to achieve nuclear fusion, those that produce more energy than they need to function are more valuable commercially. There are many different ways to use research for commercial gain. To share the risks and advantages of bringing innovative technology to market, it may include entering into licensing agreements or forming joint ventures and partnerships. In cases where the host firm lacks the appropriate motivation, finances, or expertise to develop new technologies, other corporate vehicles, such as spin-outs, are utilised. Offices that transfer technology
The Office of Technology Transfer (TTO, sometimes known as “Tech Transfer” or “TechXfer”) is a division of many universities, research institutes, and governmental agencies that is responsible for identifying research with potential for commercial use and developing strategies for its exploitation.[16] Transfer of Technology In order to handle the university’s intellectual property (IP) assets and the dissemination of information and technology to industry, offices are often established within universities. Depending on the objectives of the institutions, their mandate may occasionally encompass any engagement or contractual relationship with the private sector as well as other duties. The common names for these positions vary. The Technology Licensing Office (TLO), the Technology Management Office, the Research Contracts and IP Services Office, the Technology Transfer Interface, the Industry Liaisons Office, the IP and Technology Management Office.

Support Centers for Innovation and Technology

Centers for the Support of Technology and Innovation[18][19] To encourage innovation, technology transfer, commercialization, and application of technologies, (TISCs) assist inventors in gaining access to patent information, scientific and technical literature, search tools, and databases. Over 80 nations are being supported by the WIPO TISCs initiative. In several nations throughout the world, universities and other institutions are where TISCs are being established and developed with the assistance of WIPO member states. Services provided by TISCs may consist of:
access to publications on IP and to online patent and non-patent (scientific and technical) resources;
aid in information retrieval and search for technology;
learning how to search databases;
on-demand searches (novelty, cutting-edge, and infringement); competitor and technology monitoring; fundamental knowledge of industrial property legislation, management, and strategy; and commercialization and marketing of technology.
Government and support for intellectual property
Since 1980, there has been a noticeable rise in the number of specialized technology transfer intermediaries. This growth has been largely attributed to the Bayh-Dole Act and other laws in other nations, which offered extra incentives for the exploitation of research. A variety of intermediary organizations, such as TTOs and IP “trolls” that operate outside of the Bayh-Dole Act’s restrictions, are active in this industry as a result of the growing emphasis on technology transfer. The World Intellectual Property Organization and the European Union are two examples of international and regional organizations that have a focus on intellectual property policy, training, and systems support for technology transfer because of the risk of exploitation.

Mediators in partnerships

The U.S. government invests more than $100 billion year in research and development, which generates a steady stream of fresh ideas and innovations from federal laboratories.Congress encourages the private sector to use those technologies with commercial potential through technology transfer mechanisms like cooperative research and development agreements, patent license agreements, educational partnership agreements, and state/local government partnerships through legislation including the Bayh-Dole Act.

Facilitating technology transfer during the COVID-19 epidemic

Technology transfer made it possible for people all over the world to receive COVID-19 vaccinations, which directly contributed to difficulties with global public health. The makers of vaccines signed more than 200 intellectual transfer agreements in 2021. For the provision of COVID-19 vaccines, which were developed in partnership with the University of Oxford, AstraZeneca completed license and technology transfer agreements with the Serum Institute of India and Daiichi Sankyo of Japan. It was the case in two license agreements between Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) and pharmaceutical firms Merck and Pfizer that intellectual property was a component of the solution and a crucial instrument for facilitating inexpensive worldwide access to COVID 19 medicines.

Drawbacks

The practical features might be challenging to implement in reality, despite incentives to convert research into production. Research often concentrates on TRL (technology readiness level) 1-3, whereas preparedness for production typically concentrates on TRL 6-7 or above, using DoD technology readiness levels as a criteria (for example). In certain companies, it has been challenging to bridge TRL-3 to TRL-6. Rushing prototypes from research (prototypes) into production (production that is completely tested under various situations, dependable, maintainable, etc.) usually costs more money and takes longer than anticipated.
Technology transfer incentives based on power politics and realpolitik are understood to be detrimental elements in harmful applications. For scientific reasons, it is believed that the transfer of technology to autocratic governments will be disruptive.

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