What are a University Degree?

What are a University Degree?

When a student successfully completes a course of study in higher education, generally at a college or university, they are given a certification known as an academic degree is called University Degree. These universities frequently provide undergraduate and graduate degrees at different levels. Although some educational systems provide lower level undergraduate degrees like associate and foundation degrees, the bachelor’s degree is the most typical undergraduate degree. Master’s degrees and doctorates are typical postgraduate degrees.

What are a University Degree?

Development of the Doctorate

Development of the doctorate, master’s degree, and license

In medieval Europe, the doctorate (Latin: doceo, “I teach”) first arose as a license to teach (Latin: licentia docendi) in a university. Its origins may be found in the early church, when the word “doctor” was used to describe the Apostles, church fathers, and other figures of faith who taught and interpreted the Bible. Originally, only the church had the authority to give a licentia docendi, and in order to get one, a candidate had to submit to a test, swear loyalty, and pay a price. All qualified candidates were promised admission by the Third Council of the Lateran in 1179, which is now generally free of price. The ecclesiastic scholastic still administered aptitude tests to applicants, though. The church leaders and the protesters continued to disagree on this right.

Doctoral training at the institution resembled an apprenticeship to a guild. The typical seven-year study period required before new instructors were accepted to the guild of “Master of Arts” was identical to the period of apprenticeship for other professions. Initially, the titles “master” and “doctor” were interchangeable, but over time, the doctorate became to be viewed as a more prestigious degree than the master’s.

The English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as the historic Scottish institutions of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh, all followed the University of Paris’ tradition of using the name “master” for its graduates.

What are a University Degree?

The introduction of the bachelor’s degree

Candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, from the Latin baccalaureus, were admitted to medieval European universities after completing three or four years of study in the required texts of the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and logic) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music), collectively known as the Liberal Arts, and after successfully passing examinations held by their master. A Master of Arts degree, which derives from the Latin magister, “master,” and means “teacher” (usually signifying a teacher), would allow one to teach these topics after additional study and in particular successful participation in and then moderating of disputations. Master’s degree holders might enroll in courses under the “higher faculties” of law.

The evolution of degree nomenclature

Gradually, the names of degrees started to reflect the disciplines covered. The term “masters” was used to refer to academics in the faculty of arts or grammar, while the terms “doctors” and “doctor” were used to refer to those in the faculties of theology, medicine, and law. The doctorate obtained a greater importance than the master’s degree since study in the arts or language was a requirement for study in fields like religion, medicine, and law. As a result, the Master of Arts (M.A.) is the lower degree in the current hierarchy, whiles the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), which originated in German institutions in the 18th and 19th centuries and is now a degree focused on research and dissertation, is the higher degree. The custom of referring to PhDs as doctors arose inside.

What are a University Degree?

The French nomenclature closely resembles the phrases’ original meanings. After completing their secondary school, French students are awarded the baccalauréat (cf. “bachelor”), which entitles them to university admission. Students who complete their studies at a university are given a license, much like the teaching guilds of the middle Ages did, and is then eligible to teach in secondary schools or pursue further education. Similar structures existed in Spain, where graduates of the “Bachillerato,” or secondary or high school level, were referred to as “Bachelors.” The typical 5-year university degree in Spain was termed a “licenciado” (although there were a few 3-year associate degrees known as “diplomaturas” from which “diplomados” might progress to study a related licenciatura). The “Doctor” rank was the highest.

Degrees granted by non-university institutions

In the past, rather of coming from an educational institution, degrees were directly granted by the king or a bishop. This practice has largely disappeared. In Great Britain, the Archbishop of Canterbury continues to bestow Lambeth degrees. The Peter’s pence Act of 1533, which gave the Archbishop of Canterbury authority to issue dispensations previously granted by the Pope, is the source of the Archbishop of Canterbury’s authority to confer degrees.

Academic attire

Gaining an academic degree confers the right to don distinctive academic attire exclusive to the institution that awarded the degree, indicating the wearer’s standing.

Degree-granting and -use laws

Only institutions approved to do so by the national or regional government may provide degrees in many nations. Governments frequently have rules governing the usage of the word “university” in company names. For instance, Australia and the United Kingdom use this strategy. Fraud laws sometimes apply to the use of false degrees by persons, whether they were made up or received from a phony school.

Displaying degrees obtained

Degrees may be denoted by a pre-nominal title, post-nominal letters, a combination of both, or nothing at all, depending on the culture and the degree attained. Post-nominal letters are the standard in nations that have been affected by the UK, although titles are common in several northern European nations.

Only the highest degree, a selection of degrees, or all degrees may be listed, depending on the culture and the purpose of the listing. If a degree was at the honors level, the granting institution may be displayed and it may be stated, especially if the honours degree is a different qualification from the regular bachelor’s degree.

Online education

An academic degree that can be earned primarily or entirely online using a computer connected to the Internet as opposed to attending college on a traditional campus setting is known as an online degree. This degree is typically a college degree, though the term is occasionally used to refer to high school diplomas and non-degree certificate programs. Online universities that grant associates, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate degrees have proliferated as a result of advancements in technology, an increase in Internet usage on a global scale, and the need for flexible study schedules that allow students to work while in school.

Higher Learning

Higher education is post secondary instruction that results in the award of a degree. After completing secondary school, there is an optional last step of formal study called higher education, which is a part of post-secondary, third-level, or tertiary education. In terms of the 2011 International Standard Classification of Education framework, it corresponds to levels 5, 6, 7, and 8. As opposed to higher education, tertiary education at the non-degree level is often referred to as continuing education or further education.

What are a University Degree?

Catholic university

A pontifical university is an ecclesiastical institution founded or authorised directly by the Holy See. It consists of at least one more faculty in addition to the three primary ecclesiastical colleges of theology, philosophy, and canon law. As stated in the apostolic constitution Sapientia christiana, these academic institutions focus primarily on Christian revelation, associated fields, and the Church’s vocation to propagate the Gospel. As of 2018, they are controlled by the Veritatis Gaudium apostolic constitution, which Pope Francis released on December 8, 2017.

Validation of studies and degrees earned abroad

The procedure by which a competent body in one nation formally acknowledges the worth of a qualification from a foreign country is known as the validation or recognition of foreign studies and degrees. This might involve fully or partially validating studies, degrees, and other credentials earned at foreign universities and other educational institutions. This is addressed by a variety of international treaties and accords, particularly those that apply to Europe.

In the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO established the first generation of recognition conventions, which included agreements for Latin America and the Caribbean (1974), the Mediterranean (1976), the Arab States (1978), Europe (1979), Africa (1981), and Asia and the Pacific (1983).There is no attempt to create frameworks that automatically equate credentials; rather, these standards are focused on recognizing qualifications rather than equating them. Second generation conventions, beginning with Lisbon (1997) covering Europe and currently incorporating the Asia-Pacific area (Tokyo, 2011) and Africa (Addis Abeba, 2014), have expanded on this first generation of conventions. The burden of demonstrating material differences has increased with the more recent conventions, which has resulted in a movement in favor of recognition.

The Addis Ababa Convention will go into effect in 2019, the Tokyo Convention in 2018, and the Lisbon Convention in 1999. A new regional agreement for Latin America and the Caribbean was approved in Buenos Aires in 2019 but has not yet come into effect as of February 2020. In November 2019, the UNESCO General Conference’s 40th session approved the worldwide Convention on the Recognition of Higher Education Qualifications, the first recognition agreement with a worldwide reach.

Reference

https://mxfvirals.com/

https://shorelight.com/student-stories/what-is-a-bachelors-degree-in-the-us/#:~:text=A%20bachelor’s%20degree%20is%20the,to%20130%20semester%20credit%20hours.

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